The capillaries or the small blood vessels that are present beneath the surface of the skin become engorged. As a result of which they become visible on the skin in the form of small red lines. This gives the appearance of a permanent blush and facial redness. In this condition scarring does not occur.
The exact causes of rosacea are yet to be determined. But some of the risk factors are as follows:
Disorders of the facial capillaries causes rosacea
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that are present in the surface of the skin. Inflammation of these facial capillaries leads to their enlargement. This results in a flushing appearance of the face and red patches. What causes the inflammation of the facial capillaries is not known. Some studies have suggested that the inflammation of the blood vessels may be caused as a result of abnormal immune reactions.
Rosacea is more common in fair skinned people
People with a Caucasian background and light skinned people have shown a higher incidence of rosacea compared to other races and ethnicity.
Rosacea is linked to higher numbers of demodex folliculorum
Demodex follicularum is a tiny mite that lives on the human skin. It is usually harmless and does not cause any problems.But in people affected by rosacea the presence of demodex follicularum has been found in significantly high numbers.
Rosacea is known to run in some families
Genetic predisposition may play a role in the development of rosacea. In many cases of rosacea there is usually a close relative who also suffers from the same condition.
Helicobacter pylori may cause rosacea
Some studies have suggested that H. pylori, a bacteria found in the intestine may be linked to the inflammation of the blood vessels of the face leading to the development of rosacea. This bacteria stimulates the production of bradykinin, a protein known to cause dilation of the blood vessels, thereby increasing the blood flow and leading to their enlargement.
Rosacea is triggered by a number of factors. Some of the common aggravating factors for rosacea are detailed as below:
- Hot foods and hot drinks may aggravate the existing symptoms
- Excessive intake of caffeine may worsen the facial erythema or redness.
- Dairy products have been linked to the attack of rosacea in some people.
- Hot baths and saunas may trigger rosacea symptoms.
- Consumption of spicy, greasy and oily food has been linked to the attacks of rosacea.
- Exposure to sunlight or bright light may bring on the inflammation and engorgement of the facial blood vessels thereby triggering the attack of rosacea.
- Use of corticosteroids is also associated with the triggering of the symptoms of rosacea.
- Symptoms of rosacea may appear after vigorous exercise
- Stress and anxiety flare up the inflammation of facial capillaries and cause redness of the face.
- Some acute medical conditions like fever, cough and cold are also the known trigger factors for rosacea.